ACID and BASE

ARRHENIUS CONCEPT :::


  • ACID : Acid are those species which give H+ ions when dissolved in water.
   
    

When HCl dissolves in water it dissociates to give H+ and CL- ions.

 
                         

  • BASE : Base are those species which give OH- ions when dissolved in water.
     
    

When NaOH dissolves in water it dissociates to give Na+ and OH-


 BRONSTED LOWERY CONCEPT :::


ACID : Acid are those species which donates H+ ions. i.e H+ ion donors are called acid.

BASE : Base are those species which accepts H+ ions. i.e H+ ion acceptor are called base.



Here Acetic Acid ( CH3COOH ) donates H+ ion and hence acts as acid while Water (H2O) accepts H+ ion and thereby acts as base.


LEWIS CONCEPT :::


ACID : Acid are those species which accepts lone pair of electrons.

BASE : Base are those species which donates lone pair of electrons.




Here Ammonia ( NH3) donates lone pair of electrons and hence acts as Lewis Base while Boron Fluoride (BF3) accepts lone pair of electrons and hence acts as Lewis acid.

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